The genealogical time frame is the period during which it is possible to find genealogical records that enable the researcher to build family trees.
In countries like Germany, sources like church books from the 16th century can be found. The oldest one in Switzerland is from Basel and it goes back to 1490.
Parish registers were first introduced in England and Wales from 1538 onwards. In Italy, they became mandatory from 1563 onwards whereas in France they go even further back, with the oldest surviving register existing since 1303.